By ACI Committee 345
The service-life functionality of concrete bridge decks, together with upkeep, fix, and rehabilitation wishes, is at once concerning the care exercised from the preconstruction via post-construction interval. This consultant presents suggestions for bridge deck building according to concerns of sturdiness, concrete fabrics, reinforcement, putting, completing and curing, and overlays.
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Extra resources for ACI 345R-11: Guide for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction
By allowing the forces of supply and demand to operate freely, the economy finds its own natural balance. It may be self-evident by now that other terms used to describe the free market economy are ‘market’ or ‘capitalist’ economy. Summary: What? How? For Whom? What How For whom In a free market economy, consumers ultimately determine what will be produced by their pattern of spending (their voting in the marketplace). As far as producers are concerned, their decisions about what goods to produce are determined by the search for profits.
Few writers refer to or adopt Rakhra and Wilson’s (1982) distinction, notable exceptions being Bowen and Edwards (1985), Ofori (1990) and Bowen (1993). Seeley (1983) opted for a very narrow definition, remarking that ‘…building economics has been widely used ... to describe the investigation of factors influencing building cost, with particular reference to the interaction of building design variables’ (p. v). Ahuja and Walsh (1983) define cost engineering, which may be considered a form of construction economics, as ‘…an active approach in the design, construction and commissioning phases of a project, aimed at extracting the best possible value for money throughout each activity that has cost implications’ (p.
1). Similarly, this journal defines construction economics as including design economics, cost planning, estimating and cost control, the economic functioning of firms within the construction sector and the relationship of the sector to national and international economics. Ashworth (1988) considers construction economics as embracing clients’ requirements, impact of a development on its surrounding areas, relationship between space and shape, assessment of capital costs, cost control, life-cycle costing and economics of the industry in general.
ACI 345R-11: Guide for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction by ACI Committee 345