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By International Federation of Automatic Control, Heinz Unbehauen

ISBN-10: 0080334318

ISBN-13: 9780080334318

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These indirect couplings are shown in Table 1 (in parenthesis) and have to be accounted for when designing the discrete time model structure. The magnitude and spatial range of influence of these indirect couplings increase with the sampling interval; the longer the sampling period, the more noticeable the interaction. Once the qualitative interactions between the relevant quantities have been clarified, the following step towards building the discrete time model structure is to obtain semi quantitative dynamic information at the nominal operating conditions.

1. In constructing this diagram, the following assumptions have been made: a. - A single effective enthalpy balance is used, since the heat capacity of the reactor wall and thermal insulation are very small compared to the heat capacity of the fixed bed and there is a high heat transfer between the gas phase and the pellets in the bed. In addition, radial effects are not accounted for. The reactor is considered to be adiabatic. b. - The oxygen and water are carried in large excess of hydrogen. The extent of the reaction has a small effect on the total mass flow rate, the latter is consequently assumed constant throughout the reactor.

For adapting the control, the gradient of H is used over u. # can be found from the task H ( x ^ u ^ t i ) -*" raax for fixed x / , *f* · The ( V + 1) approximation of the control vector is then determined based on equation (13). V+ 1} by maens of the constraints (8). 1 etc. 2·4 Outlet condition The adaptation of the optimum control will be terminated if, after the th iteration, the condition r [HJ -SiM '- · max i is fulfilled· Where € = given accuracy of solution. Since3 the -cne solutions sojLu-cions obtained ooxamea from irom the xne offOIIline optimization, as starting values /u- °J for the bhe adaption, are a good approximate solution, for system states that deviate from the class representative, the solution obtained by means of (12; or (13) tends to the optimum at sufficiently small f .

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Adaptive Control of Chemical Processes 1985 by International Federation of Automatic Control, Heinz Unbehauen

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