New PDF release: Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems

By James C. Lin (auth.), James C. Lin (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1461368863

ISBN-13: 9781461368861

ISBN-10: 1461542030

ISBN-13: 9781461542032

This is the 3rd quantity within the sequence, within which the subject of the results of radio frequencies on human tissue, now more and more a priority with the superiority of cellphones, is explored via Prof. Lin and different researchers. The effect of electromagnetics on imaging and cardiology, either very prepared components of study at the present, is usually explored.

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The data given in Table 2 show that the penetration depth for low water content tissues such as tone and fat is nearly five times greater than for higher water content tissues. And it is also frequency dependent. The transmission coefficient for tissue-tissue interfaces generally is larger than air-tissue interfaces and the reflection coefficient is just the opposite. 50 for a bone-muscle interface. [Lin and Gandhi, 1996]. In layered tissue structure with different dielectric permittivity, the coupling behavior can be very complex.

The computerized MRI head models have a spatial resolution of 1-3 mm. Frequency-specific tissue permittivities such as those given in Table 5 are used to represent each tissue type in the inhomogeneous model of the head. Common or intended head-phone positions have been used to compute SAR distributions in the head. Table 6 presents a list of computed SAR for cellular telephones operating between 8001900 MHz. The antennas simulated include Al4, 3/8 A, Al2, and internal structures. Note that these results do not exhibit any consistent effect of antenna type or length on induced SAR.

Spins whose expected axes of precessions are parallel with the external magnetic field are called a spins and are in a low-energy, stable state. Spins whose precession axes are antiparallel with the external magnetic field are called fJ spins and are in a high-energy, unstable state. In the state of thermal equilibrium, spins are in only one of those two states, and the number of a spins is slightly greater than the number of fJ spins. As small as this slight excess is, it accounts for the small macroscopic net magnetization Mo directing parallel with the static ma~'11etic field, and it is this differential that accounts for the NMR signal on which MRl is based.

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Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems by James C. Lin (auth.), James C. Lin (eds.)


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