By Gunter Radden, Klaus-Michael Kopcke, Thomas Berg, Peter Siemund
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Extra info for Aspects of Meaning Construction (Z 136)
G. the controlled-controller relationship between ‘bus-driver’ and ‘bus’ is preserved in The buses are on strike, but not in *The wheels are on strike. The Extended Invariance Principle focuses on adequately correlating source and target elements. Thus, in love is a journey, travelers naturally map onto lovers since both are controlling entities that develop a goal-oriented activity, and the love relationship maps onto a vehicle since both the relationship and the vehicle are ways of achieving the intended aims.
Assume that in the case of “Robert is a bulldozer,” the context, as part of the mutual cognitive environment holding at that moment for the speaker and listener, primes the incorporation of the mind as machine metaphor, such as when Robert or someone else is previously described as a powerful thinker. This conceptual metaphor provides many possible mappings between the source domain machine and the target domain mind. At this point, a relevance-guided sorting process determines which of the many possible source-to-target domain mappings of the machine to mind metaphor may be applied to constructing the ad hoc concept bulldozer* that meets the expectation of optimal relevance for this context.
Conceptual metaphors may also be recruited during people’s immediate comprehension of much metaphoric language (Gibbs et al. 1997; Pfaff, Gibbs, and Johnson 1997), although there remains significant debate over this issue (see Glucksberg 2001). In contrast to the plethora of studies on conceptual metaphor, there are virtually no experimental studies that have explicitly attempted to find evidence on the role of conceptual metonymies in figurative meaning construction. I have previously argued that various evidence from both cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics is quite consistent with the idea that people normally engage in metonymic reasoning during many aspects of ordinary text and spoken language understanding, especially that referring to part-whole relationships (Gibbs 1994, 1999).
Aspects of Meaning Construction (Z 136) by Gunter Radden, Klaus-Michael Kopcke, Thomas Berg, Peter Siemund