By Zhifen Yang, Daniel J. Klionsky (auth.), Beth Levine, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Vojo Deretic (eds.)
Autophagy is a basic organic strategy that allows cells to autodigest their very own cytosol in the course of hunger and other kinds of pressure. It has a turning out to be spectrum of stated roles in immunity, getting older, improvement, neurodegeneration, and melanoma biology. An immunological position of autophagy was once first well-known with the invention of autophagy’s skill to sanitize the mobile inside through killing intracellular microbes. due to the fact then, the repertoire of autophagy’s roles in immunity has been significantly improved to incorporate a various yet interconnected portfolio of regulatory and effector services. Autophagy is an effector of Th1/Th2 polarization; it fuels MHC II presentation of cytosolic (self and microbial) antigens; it shapes significant tolerance; it impacts B and T mobilephone homeostasis; it acts either as an effector and a regulator of Toll-like receptor and different innate immunity receptor signaling; and it will possibly support thrust back continual inflammatory sickness in people. With the sort of multitude of innate and adaptive immunity features, the examine of autophagy in immunity is likely one of the so much swiftly starting to be fields of up to date immunological examine. This publication introduces the reader to the basics of autophagy, publications a amateur and the well-informed reader alike via varied immunological facets of autophagy in addition to the countermeasures utilized by hugely tailored pathogens to struggle autophagy, and offers the professional with the newest, updated info at the specifics of the forefront of autophagy study in an infection and immunity.
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Additional resources for Autophagy in Infection and Immunity
J Biol Chem 280:18283–18290 Yan J, Kuroyanagi H, Kuroiwa A, Matsuda Y, Tokumitsu H, Tomoda T, Shirasawa T, Muramatsu M (1998) Identification of mouse ULK1, a novel protein kinase structurally related to C. elegans UNC-51. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 246:222–227 Yan J, Kuroyanagi H, Tomemori T, Okazaki N, Asato K, Matsuda Y, Suzuki Y, Ohshima Y, Mitani S, Masuho Y, Shirasawa T, Muramatsu M (1999) Mouse ULK2, a novel member of the UNC51-like protein kinases: unique features of functional domains. Oncogene 18:5850–5859 Yang Z, Huang J, Geng J, Nair U, Klionsky DJ (2006) Atg22 recycles amino acids to link the degradative and recycling functions of autophagy.
8 Vesicle Breakdown and Recycling of the Resulting Macromolecules Upon release into the vacuole, the single-membrane subvacuolar vesicle, the autophagic or Cvt body, is broken down inside the vacuolar lumen. This process depends on proper vacuole function (including vacuolar acidification) and the activity of vacuolar resident hydrolases (including Pep4 and Prb1). In addition to these factors, Atg15, a putative lipase, is also implicated at this step and seems likely to function directly in the intravacuolar lysis of the autophagic/Cvt body (Epple et al.
4 of Yorimitsu and Klionsky (2005b) 18 Z. J. Klionsky Atg7 and Atg3 are minimal catalysts (Ichimura et al. 2004). Unlike the Atg12— Atg5 conjugate, Atg8—PE conjugation is a reversible process in which Atg4 liberates Atg8 from its target lipid. The liberated Atg8 is recycled and used in another conjugation reaction to allow efficient progression of autophagy and the Cvt pathway (Kirisako et al. 2000). Both the Atg12 and the Atg8 conjugation systems are evolutionarily conserved. The mammalian homologs for each component of the yeast Atg12—Atg5 conjugation systems (Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and Atg12) have been characterized, and they function in a similar manner to their counterparts in yeast (Mizushima et al.
Autophagy in Infection and Immunity by Zhifen Yang, Daniel J. Klionsky (auth.), Beth Levine, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Vojo Deretic (eds.)