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1 Cross-sectional views of superconducting dipole magnets for large particle accelerator magnets [15]: (a) Tevatron, (b) HERA, (c) SSC, (d), RHIC and (e) LHC. The magnets rely on similar design principles which are detailed in the oncoming sections. The field is produced by saddle-shape coils that, in their long straight sections, approximate cos conductor distributions for dipole magnets and cos2 conductor distributions for quadrupole magnets. The coils are wound from Rutherford-type cables made of NbTi multifilamentary strands and are mechanically restrained by means of laminated collars.

2 K for aluminum alloy. When assessing the respective merits of austenitic stainless steel and aluminum alloy, it should be noted that austenitic stainless steel presents a better resistance to stress cycling at low temperature [63], but that it has a higher density (7800 kg/m3 compared to 2800 kg/m3 for aluminum alloy) and that it is more expensive. There is no ideal solution between stainless steel and aluminum alloy and magnets with both types of collar materials have been built: HERA dipole magnets and most LHC dipole magnet prototypes use aluminum alloy collars while Tevatron dipole magnets and most SSC dipole magnet prototypes rely on stainless steel collars.

8 Perspective view of a saddle-shape coil assembly for a dipole magnet. Sophisticated algorithms have been developed to determine the conductor trajectories which minimize strain energy [42]. These algorithms are coupled with electromagnetic computations to minimize field distortions. SSC and LHC magnets use precisely machined end spacers, designed by the optimization programs, which are positioned between conductor blocks [43]. In addition, the iron yoke does not extend over the coil ends to reduce the field on the conductors.

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CAS-CERN Accelerator School - Meas. and Alignment of Accel and Detector Magnets

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