By M. Absi-Halabi, J. Beshara, H. Qabazard, A. Stanislaus
Catalysis performs an more and more serious position in glossy petroleum refining and uncomplicated petrochemical industries as industry calls for for and necessities of petroleum and petrochemical items are continually altering. As we input the twenty first century, new demanding situations for catalysis technological know-how and know-how are expected in virtually each box. fairly, greater usage of petroleum assets and calls for for purifier transportation fuels are significant goods. It was once in contrast heritage that the 2d overseas convention on Catalysts in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries used to be equipped. The convention was once attended by way of round three hundred experts within the catalysis box from either academia and from over 30 nations. It supplied a discussion board for the trade of principles among scientists and engineers from the zone with their opposite numbers from industrialized countries.The papers from the convention, which have been rigorously chosen from round a hundred submissions, have been refereed by way of clinical and technical content material and layout based on across the world permitted criteria. They contain a mixture of experiences delivering an summary of chosen parts, unique primary learn effects, and commercial stories.
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Additional info for Catalysts in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries 1995
Si/A! 0 12 33 (• I ~'!. = 80 •••••1 - \\ \ f_ \\ \\ 60 F. \ \ k \\ \ ~, \ LEGEND I = I r-! \ I o ' . , I o! 8~ ! 014 - 40 ! ' ' I: ! ~ B 20 "'1 cSl 4. 1400 1450 1500 STEAM AGING TEMPERATURE (OF) . 8. 12. "'~--"~"-'~-~ . 16. TWO Figure 2. The effect of Na-levels on the crystalinity of Y zeolites during steam-aging.
32. 36. 4 0. 44. 48. 200 300 400 500 600 WAVENUMBER TWO -- THETA 700 800 900 1000 ( C M - 1) (DEGREES) Figure 4. X-ray diffractograms of HY crystals with 5% V calcined at: A) 540~ in air, B) 760~ air and C) 760~ steam. Silica (tridymite) formation is indicated by arrows (22). Figure 5. 1 and Na20 = 0 . 22 1100 34 d ! TWO--THETACDEGREES~ i j i ='! Z LU I,,- " "-"'"-""~ ..... I ~ ~-""'""-" i C 1 4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 24. 28. 32. 36. 1 o 4 D 40. 44. 48. 200 400 600 800 1000 WAVENUMBER (CM-') Figure 6.
In contrast, the destruction ofHY crystallinity by V results in mullite and silica (tridymite) formation (Figure 4). A third-phase, vanadia, can be easily identified in the laser Raman spectra (LRS) of V-loaded HY crystals (Figure 5). The calculated orthorhombic unit cell parameters for several mullites, crystallized with and without V, have indicated that (in a qualitative sense) V causes an expansion of the unit cell volume resulting mainly from an increase in the a dimension . Thus, incorporation of V into the crystal lattice of this mineral can occur during mullite formation.
Catalysts in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries 1995 by M. Absi-Halabi, J. Beshara, H. Qabazard, A. Stanislaus